The earnings ratio between women and men was the lowest among those with degrees in business, management and public administration, architecture, engineering, and related technologies, and physical and life sciences and technologies, (all three fields at 0.78). Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. In 2008 for example, 62% of all university undergraduates were women (Chart 8). Among Filipino women, 44% had a university degree, but many immigrated to Canada as live-in caregivers.Note 65. Women accounted for one third of doctorates in physical and life sciences (34%); and represented a larger share among doctorates in the sub-grouping of biological and biomedical sciences (43%) compared with among physical sciences (22%). Similarly, women accounted for 58% of lawyers in 2011 (an increase of 16 percentage points). The Conference Board of Canada. Women represented a smaller share of doctorates in the latter two fields of study at the doctorate level then they did at the master’s or bachelor’s level. Women have sustained a long-term trend toward higher education by increasingly completing postsecondary qualifications (Chart 1a).Note 1. Provincial variations in level of educational attainment Among Canadian-born women with a university degree, only 4% had studied outside of Canada and the most common location was the United States. Within this latter group, a smaller share of doctorates in social science were earned by women (39%) than in psychology (67%). The truth is there isn’t much of a difference between the two years. Skills in Canada: First Results from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). This may limit women’s participation in the labour market, or result in different work histories, for women and men.Note 38 The next three sections examine young women who are not working or in school - often out of the labour force with children, educational attainment among female lone parents, and the impact of student debt on family formation. At the PhD level, although female students remain in the minority, their proportion has increased even more than in the other two postsecondary levels. The majority of NEET women were out of the labour force (72%) compared with less than half (48%) of men (Chart 5). Since the early 1990s, women have made up the majority of full-time students enrolled in undergraduate university programs (Chart 7). Both in 2018 and in 2019, men are more likely to cheat than women. The number of female immigrants with a university degree aged 25 to 34 over the total female population with a university degree aged 25 to 34 by province. Sex differences in education are a type of sex discrimination in the education system affecting both men and women during and after their educational experiences. Girls’ education is a longstanding priority for the WBG, as evidenced by the Charlevoix Declaration on Quality Education for Girls, Adolescent Girls, and Women in Developing Countries, signed by the World Bank in 2018 with a commitment of contributing USD$2 billion in 5 years. At the provincial level, Newfoundland and Labrador and New Brunswick have shown the most progress “Overqualification among recent university graduates in Canada.” Insights on Canadian Society. The pattern and rates were similar among male university degree holders, as a higher proportion (31%) had a proficiency level of 4 or 5 in literacy than those with a high school diploma or less (7%). Women from … Almost two-thirds (65%) of Aboriginal people with university degrees aged 25 to 64 were women, compared with just over half (54%) of same-aged non-Aboriginal degree holders. University graduates include those with a certificate below bachelor’s level as well as degrees at the bachelor’s level or above and exclude all graduates who had returned to school within three years of graduation in 2009/2010. Similarly, the most common STEM field among non-Aboriginal women was science and science technology (57%), followed by engineering (24%) and mathematics and computer sciences (19%). Conversely, women were half (7%) as likely to have completed a trades certificate as their highest level of education compared with men (15%). The two lowest rates of overqualification among young male immigrants were and mathematics, computer and information sciences (12.7%) and architecture, engineering and related technologies (15.7%), the same fields of study as among young Canadian-born male degree holders. As such, for women, a university education is associated with a strong return on the labour market, and this was the case across Canada. In fact, some regions of the country can attract university graduates born elsewhere or who received their education in another region or province. In the latter case, women aged 25 to 29 were earning $1.07 for each dollar earned by men in the same age group who had studied in the same field. First we will present a general profile of women's education, showing how the situation of women changed over time compared to that of men. Over one third (36%) of young women with a degree in mathematics and computer science were working in natural and applied science occupations, compared with 61% of young men with a degree in mathematics and computer sciences. The earnings of women with a bachelor's degree were 58% higher than the earnings of women with a high school diploma and 41% higher than the earnings of women with college education. The occupations in the grouping of sales and services are primarily low skillNote 71, and include sales occupations, personal, security and tourism services. Toronto. This proportion reached a peak in British Columbia and Ontario where, respectively, 93% and 92% of women had at least a high school diploma. In 2006/2007, women accounted for 56% of college enrolments and 59% of graduates. That’s a big difference from 1967, when 57 percent of recent male high-school grads were in college, compared to 47.2 percent of women. While the rates of overqualification were much higher among female immigrants than their Canadian-born counterparts, the fields of study with the lowest rates of overqualification were the same. In general, girls exhibit a higher level of commitment to school than boys (interest in learning, respect for rules and obligations), which helps explain why they are less likely to drop out than their male counterparts.8. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. 89-555-X. “Youth neither enrolled nor employed.” Perspectives on Labour and Income. Table 10 Percentage of university students enrolled part-time, by level of program, Canada, 1992/1993 and 2008/2009. What percent of teachers are women? For example, the percentage of women enrolled in building construction programs was 3.7% in 2007, a slight increase over the 1.4% in 1991 (Chart 5). Chart 4 Participation rates of full-time students, by age group, Canada, 1976 to 2009. After business and health, female college diploma holders were distributed in small numbers across many fields of study. 2012. For example, women aged 25 to 29 with a graduate or professional degree (Master's or PhD) and with full-year full-time work were earning 96 cents for each dollar earned by their male counterparts in 2005. Women accounted for a larger proportion of assistant professors at almost half (46%) while over half (54%) of those working as teaching staff without tenure (below assistant professors) were women. Some fields of study that were common among male university degree holders, were not as common among their female counterparts. In 2011, the top three occupations among young employed men with a university degree were computer programmers and interactive media developers, financial auditors and accountants and secondary school teachers. The most common sub-field among female business graduates at the college level was administrative assistant and secretarial science. Immigrants accounted for half (50%) of doctorate holders overallNote 51, but this proportion was somewhat lower among female doctorate holders (45%), compared with among male doctorate holders (54%). Examining the relationship between the mathematics skills of girls of high school age and the relationship with program choice at university exposes another ‘leak’ in the pipeline for girls. The report finds that women in Canada earn just 84 cents for every $1 earned by men, a gap similar to the one reported in official statistics. Over one-third (37%) of all Aboriginal STEM degree holders aged 25 to 64  were Aboriginal women, compared with 33% of non-Aboriginal STEM degree holders (Chart 7). Girls on average scored 87 and boys 78. Educational Statistics at A Glance 3 Table-1: Indian Population: Census 2001 and 2011 (In Crore) Year >> 2001 2011 Total 102.87 121.06 Male 53.22 62.31 Female 49.65 58.75 Data Source: Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India Table-2: Estimated Population of India by Age Group of Educational Attainment - 2015 The third most common field of study grouping for women with a college diploma was family and consumer sciences (7%). Statistics Canada Catalogue no. The study also found that among young women who perceived their mathematics skills to be excellent, 47% chose a STEM program at university compared with 66% of young men with similar positive perceptions. On the other hand, the majority (79%) of all male apprenticeship certificate holders were found in construction trades (34%), mechanic and repair technicians (29%) and precision production (16%). On the other hand, among men with a STEM degree, fewer (7.4%) worked in sales and service occupations compared with male degree holders overall (10.9%). In particular, 41% of young female STEM degree holders were immigrant women. On the other hand, in 2011, women accounted for less than 5% of young employed people without a university degree in occupations that already had a high proportion of men such as heavy equipment operators, truck drivers, plumbers and carpenters. Researchers have used this perspective to talk about women in STEM, noting that there are ‘leaks’ in the pipeline in the earliest years of schooling right through to employment with many women either studying in non-STEM fields or subsequently not working in occupations related to STEM fields of study. p 27. The two fields in which the smallest proportion of women were recorded were mathematics, computer and information sciences (23% of graduates), and architectural, engineering and related services (14% of graduates). The female-to-male earnings ratio was 0.805 in 2017, which is not statistically different from the ratio a year prior. Most women who completed their college diploma in the family and consumer sciences/human sciences grouping studied in the sub-group of child care services. These three fields accounted for almost half (47%) of female university degree holders compared with about a third of men (35%) (Table 16). Some of the occupations of those without a university degree that had a high female concentration remained highly concentrated. Care must be taken when comparing results between the assessment modalities. (Chart 8). The proportion of women among younger STEM degree holders was particularly pronounced among those in science and technology. The NEET population can be either unemployed (available for work) or out of the labour force (not available for work for various reasons such as illness or caring for children). The earnings ratio (0.57) between women and men among those with an apprenticeship certificate was the lowest of all levels of education. This occupational grouping includes all professional and technical occupations in engineering, mathematics and physical and life sciences requiring a postsecondary education in an appropriate scientific discipline. Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report, Women and Education: Qualifications, Skills and Technology, Proportion of female lone parents with university degrees has increased at a slower pace than among female parents in couples, Women with student debt less likely to be married or have children, Women and Education: Qualifications, Skills and Technology, The Economic Well-Being of Women in Canada, Time use: Total work burden, unpaid work, and leisure, Educational attainment among women has increased significantly, Women more likely than men to have college or university qualifications, less likely to have a trades certificate as their highest credential, The number of new female apprenticeship registrations is growing, At least one third of adult women in Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta have a university certificate or degree, Women account for the majority of recent postsecondary graduates in all provinces and territories, The majority of young women completed their postsecondary education in the same province or territory in which they lived in 2011, One quarter of female university degree holders completed their degree outside Canada, Girls score significantly higher in reading than boys, have similar results in science and lower scores in mathematics, Girls have relatively high achievement in mathematics but gap between the sexes persists, Fewer girls than boys score in the upper range of mathematical proficiency, Girls performed equally well on the computer-based or paper-based math assessment, Girls with higher mathematical ability are less likely to pursue, Women and men have similar literacy skills, while men have higher proficiency in numeracy, Literacy and numeracy are associated with higher levels of education, Literacy and numeracy are also associated with employment, Women and men display similar proficiencies in problem solving, Fewer women among earned doctorate holders than among bachelor’s or master’s degree holders, Women and men complete their qualifications in different fields of study at the trades, college and university level, Among women with a college diploma, the most common field of study was business, management, marketing and related support services, The most common field of study among women with a degree was education, While women represent the majority of university degree holders in most fields of study, they are still the minority among, Women account for a higher share of degree holders among younger, Women account for twice as many physical science degree holders among younger graduates compared with older ones, Aboriginal women account for more than one-third of Aboriginal, Young female immigrants account for 4 in 10 young female university, Young Canadian-born and immigrant women with, Less than one fifth of all young women with a university degree are overqualified, however this rate rises to one third among their immigrant counterparts, Young visible minority women who are immigrants are more likely to be overqualified than Canadian-born visible minority women, Overqualification higher among immigrant women who complete their degree outside of Canada or the United States, Female degree holders in health, architecture and engineering, and education have lowest rates of overqualification, The most common occupation group among young female, Over half of young female engineering graduates are working in natural and applied sciences, The most common occupation among young women with a university degree is elementary/kindergarten teacher, Share of female workers rising in occupations held by university graduates, Two thirds of general practitioners and family physicians are women, Employment income among women is more comparable with men's at the university level than other levels, Earnings of graduates from fields of study with high female concentration are generally lower than in male concentrated fields of study, Graduates in health and related fields are the highest earners among female university degree holders, Gender differences in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and computer science (STEM) programs at university, Percentage of Graduates in Science, Math, Computer Science, and Engineering. Table 14 Participation in job-related studies or training programs, Canada, 2002 and 2008. Almost 3 in 10 (29%) immigrant women with a university degree were considered overqualified for their occupation compared with less than one-quarter of immigrant men (23%) and 15% of Canadian-born women. Skills in Canada: First Results from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). College programs tend to be occupation-driven and thus subject to occupational segregation by sex. Every additional year of primary school increases girls' eventual wages by 10-20 percent. The results in this study indicate that self-perceived math ability plays a role in discouraging girls from choosing STEM fields at university. In the 2011 NOC, there were 5 categories related to information technology. Since women are more likely than men to earn a high school diploma, it is not surprising to find that they also account for the majority of enrolments in college programs (Table 8). A much smaller proportion (4%) of men had completed a diploma in this grouping. Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. Employment earnings of women and men by level of schooling In comparison, the average mathematics PISA score among men who chose STEM programs at university was 597; higher than among men overall (589) and  among men who chose health (577) at university. In this report, levels of education are measured using ‘highest certificate, diploma or degree’ which codes a person’s educational qualifications according to the highest certificate, diploma or degree obtained by a person. The 5 categories combined accounted for 9% of young employed men with a university degree. The proportion of men whose highest level of education is a high school diploma remained largely unchanged during the same period (26% in 1991 to 25% in 2015). The National Occupational Classification (NOC) does not contain groups of occupations in the sciences in the same way that the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) has a group of fields of study, referred to as ‘science, technology, engineering and mathematics’ (STEM). On a scale of 0 to 10 measuring attention, girls scored on average 7.5 and boys, 6.7. The Registered Apprenticeship Information System also collects information on the total number of registered apprentices in a given year (which includes those who are continuing on). Student loans/debts differ from one province to the other. University studies In order to cover the costs of postsecondary education, many students take out student loans. Despite the increased number of women in registered apprenticeship training programs, many of them drop out and do not earn their certificate. This order reflects roughly the prevalence of the immigrant population by province.Note 61, The unemployment rate of young Canadian-born women aged 25 to 34 with a STEM degree (4.7%) was slightly higher than among same-aged Canadian-born women with a non-STEM degree (4.3%) (Table 17). In 1992, 32% of all graduates with a PhD were women, a proportion that climbed to 44% in 2008 (Chart 8). Researchers have analyzed a number of other factors that play a role in determining the gap in employment income between women and men such as occupation, work experience and career interruptions, unionization, family gap, and job preferences. Three years after graduation, female college graduates had lower average incomes ($35,200) than their male counterparts ($46,500). In 2018-2019, women made up: 12 Professors: 28.0% Women with a degree in health and related fields (working full time and full year) earned 91 cents for each dollar earned by their male counterparts in 2010 and earned $70,288. The “Who, What, When, and Where” of Gender Pay Differentials. These are important to note because their outcomes tend not to be as strong as the most common fields among men with a certificate of apprenticeship. A recent study used PISA scores from 2000 for a cohort of Canadian girls and boys, who were then followed up ten years later to determine if PISA mathematics scores were related to STEM program choice at university. The earnings ratio of women and men who were self-employed with a degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry was much higher (0.94) than among paid employees (0.75). Women became the majority (62%) of general practitioners and family physicians in 2011, up from 43% in 1991. Unlike among overall enrolments where women accounted for the majority, women were proportionally less represented among international student enrolments (46%). The proportion of women graduates increased in all the other university programs, except the residual category "Other instructional programs". Registered apprenticeship training programs include six major trade groups: building construction, electrical, electronic and related trades, food and services, industrial and related mechanical trades, metal fabricating, and motor vehicle and heavy equipment. However, women are definitely in the minority in all the other registered apprenticeship training programs like building construction or electrical and electronic trades. An observed difference is noted as statistically significant in PISA at the 0.05 level. As well, more girls than boys earn their high school diploma within the expected timeframe and girls are less likely to drop out. 2014. The 2013 National Graduates Survey asked graduates from a master’s program in 2009-2010 their reasons for pursuing an earned doctorate. Related changes in the economy, including shifts to globalized markets and an emphasis on innovation and technology, all mean that education is more and more an integral component of economic and social well-being.

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